Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions among consolidated entities were eliminated upon consolidation. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in the United States for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. As permitted under those rules certain footnotes or other financial information can be condensed or omitted. These financial statements and related disclosures have been prepared with the assumption that users of the interim financial information have read or have access to the audited consolidated financial statements for the preceding fiscal year. Accordingly, these statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 7, 2019.
These financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the Company’s annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments that are necessary for a fair statement of the Company’s consolidated financial information. The interim results of operations are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates including, but not limited to, those related to revenue recognition, long-term equity securities, operating lease right-of-use assets, legal contingencies, contingent consideration under royalty purchase agreements, royalty receivables, income taxes and stock-based compensation. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other market-specific and other relevant assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.
Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates, such as the Company’s billing under government contracts and amortization of the payments received from HealthCare Royalty Partners II, L.P. (“HCRP”). Under the Company’s contracts with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (“NIAID”), a part of the National Institutes of Health (“NIH”), the Company billed using NIH’s provisional rates and thus is subject to future audits at the discretion of NIAID’s contracting office. These audits can result in an adjustment to revenue previously reported which potentially could be material. In addition, under the contracts with HCRP, the amortization for the reporting period is calculated based on the payments expected to be made by the licensees to HCRP over the term of the arrangement. Any changes to the estimated payments by the licensees to HCRP can result in a material adjustment to revenue previously reported.
Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606") applies to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, collaboration arrangements and financial instruments. Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services.
To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that the Company determines are within the scope of ASC 606, the Company performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that Company will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations, and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation based on relative fair values, when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.
The Company recognizes revenue from its license and collaboration arrangements and royalties. The terms of the arrangements generally include payment to the Company of one or more of the following: non-refundable, upfront license fees, development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments, and royalties on net sales of licensed products.
License of intellectual property
If the license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenue from non-refundable, upfront fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the customer and the customer is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, such as transfer of related materials, process and know-how, the Company utilizes judgement to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time. Under the Company’s license agreements, the nature of the combined performance obligation is the granting of licenses to the customers as the other promises are not separately identifiable in the context of the arrangement. Since the Company grants the license to a customer as it exists at the point of transfer, and is not involved in any future development or commercialization of the products related to the license, the nature of the license is a right to use the Company’s intellectual property as transferred. As such, the Company recognizes revenue related to the combined performance obligation upon completion of the delivery of the related materials, process and know-how (i.e., at a point in time).
At the inception of each arrangement that includes development and regulatory milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price. ASC 606 suggests two alternatives to use when estimating the amount of variable consideration: the expected value method and the most likely amount method. Under the expected value method, an entity considers the sum of probability-weighted amounts in a range of possible consideration amounts. Under the most likely amount method, an entity considers the single most likely amount in a range of possible consideration amounts. The Company expects to use the most likely amount method for development and regulatory milestone payments.
If it is probable that a significant cumulative revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis. The Company recognizes revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the probability or achievement of each such milestone and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjusts its estimates of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect revenue and earnings in the period of adjustment.
For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).
Upfront payments and fees are recorded as deferred revenue upon receipt or when due, and may require deferral of revenue recognition to a future period until the Company performs its obligations under these arrangements. Amounts payable to the Company are recorded as accounts receivable when the Company’s right to consideration is unconditional. The Company does not assess whether a contract has a significant financing component if the expectation at contract inception is such that the period between payment by the customer and the transfer of the promised goods or services to the customer will be one year or less.
Sale of Future Revenue Streams
The Company has sold its rights to receive certain milestones and royalties on product sales. In the circumstance where the Company has sold its rights to future milestones and royalties under a license agreement and also maintains limited continuing involvement in the arrangement (but not significant continuing involvement in the generation of the cash flows that are due to the purchaser), the Company defers recognition of the proceeds it receives for the sale of milestone or royalty streams and recognizes such unearned revenue as revenue under units-of-revenue method over the life of the underlying license agreement. Under the units-of-revenue method, amortization for a reporting period is calculated by computing a ratio of the proceeds received from the purchaser to the total payments expected to be made to the purchaser over the term of the agreement, and then applying that ratio to the period’s cash payment.
Estimating the total payments expected to be received by the purchaser over the term of such arrangements requires management to use subjective estimates and assumptions. Changes to the Company’s estimate of the payments expected to be made to the purchaser over the term of such arrangements could have a material effect on the amount of revenues recognized in any particular period.
The Company recognizes compensation expense for all stock-based payment awards made to the Company’s employees, consultants and directors that are expected to vest based on estimated fair values. The valuation of stock option awards is determined at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model (the “Black-Scholes Model”). The Black-Scholes Model requires inputs such as the expected term of the option, expected volatility and risk-free interest rate. To establish an estimate of expected term, the Company considers the vesting period and contractual period of the award and its historical experience of stock option exercises, post-vesting cancellations and volatility. The estimate of expected volatility is based on the Company’s historical volatility. The risk-free rate is based on the yield available on United States Treasury zero-coupon issues corresponding to the expected term of the award. The Company records forfeitures when they occur.
The Company records compensation expense for service-based awards on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the award, or to the date on which retirement eligibility is achieved, if shorter. For awards with performance-based conditions, at the point that it becomes probable that the performance conditions will be met, the Company records a cumulative catch-up of the expense from the grant date to the current date, and then amortizes the remainder of the expense over the remaining service period. Management evaluates when the achievement of a performance-based condition is probable based on the expected satisfaction of the performance conditions as of the reporting date. The amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest.
The valuation of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) is determined at the date of grant using the Company’s closing stock price.
The Company received shares of common stock from Rezolute, Inc. (“Rezolute”) in April 2018 (Note 4). Equity investments in Rezolute are classified in the condensed consolidated balance sheets as long-term equity securities. The equity securities are measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recorded in the other income (expense), net line item of the condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) at each reporting period. The Company remeasures its equity investments at each reporting period until such time that the investment is sold or disposed of. If the Company sells an investment, any realized gains and losses on the sale of the securities will be recognized in the condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) in the period of sale.
Purchase of Rights to Future Milestones and Royalties
The Company has purchased rights to receive a portion of certain future developmental, regulatory and commercial sales milestones, royalties and option fees on sales of products currently in clinical development. The Company has accounted for the purchased rights as a financial asset in accordance with ASC 310, Receivables. The Company acquired such rights from various entities and recorded the amount paid for these rights as long-term royalty receivables (see Note 5). In addition, the Company may be obligated to make contingent payments related to certain product development milestones, fees upon exercise of options related to future license products and sales-based milestones. The contingent payments are evaluated whether they are freestanding instruments or embedded derivatives. If freestanding instruments, the contingent payments are measured at fair value on the inception of the arrangement, subject to remeasurement to fair value each reporting period. Any changes in the estimated fair value is recorded in the condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company accounts for milestone and royalty rights related to developmental pipeline products on a non-accrual basis using the cost recovery method. These developmental pipeline products are non-commercialized, non-approved products that require Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or other regulatory approval, and thus have uncertain cash flows. The Company is not yet able to reliably forecast future cash flows given their pre-commercial stages of development. The related receivable balance is classified as noncurrent since no payments are probable to be received in the near term. Under the cost recovery method, any milestone or royalty received is recorded as a direct reduction of the recorded receivable balance. When the recorded receivable balance has been fully collected, any additional amounts collected are recognized as revenue.
The Company reviews any impairment indicators and changes in expected recoverability of the long-term royalty receivable asset regularly. If expected future cash flows discounted to the current period are less than the carrying value of the asset, the Company will record impairment. The impairment will be recognized by reducing the financial asset to an amount that represents the present value of the most recent estimate of cash flows.
The Company has entered into lease agreements for its corporate office facility in Emeryville, California and for additional office and laboratory facilities in Berkeley, California. Effective January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASC Topic 842, Leases (“ASC 842”) using the optional transition method and applied the standard only to leases that existed at that date. Under the optional transition method, the Company does not need to restate the comparative periods in transition and will continue to present financial information and disclosures for periods before January 1, 2019 in accordance with ASC Topic 840. The Company has elected the package of practical expedients allowed under ASC Topic 842, which permits the Company to account for its existing operating leases as operating leases under the new guidance, without reassessing the Company’s prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct cost. As a result of the adoption of the new lease accounting guidance, on January 1, 2019, the Company recognized operating lease right-of-use assets of $7.4 million and operating lease liabilities of $9.2 million. The difference in the operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities is primarily due to the carrying amount of lease-related restructuring liabilities of $1.7 million as of December 31, 2018 (see Note 8).
The Company determines the initial classification and measurement of its right-of-use assets and lease liabilities at the lease commencement date and thereafter if modified. The lease term includes any renewal options and termination options that the Company is reasonably assured to exercise. The present value of lease payments is determined by using the interest rate implicit in the lease, if that rate is readily determinable; otherwise, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate. The incremental borrowing rate is determined by using the rate of interest that the Company would pay to borrow on a collateralized basis an amount equal to the lease payments for a similar term and in a similar economic environment.
Rent expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis, unless the right-of-use asset has been impaired, over the reasonably assured lease term based on the total lease payments and is included in operating expenses in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
For operating leases that reflect impairment, the Company will recognize the amortization of the right-of-use asset on a straight-line basis over the remaining lease term with rent expense still included in operating expenses in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
For all leases, rent payments that are based on a fixed index or rate at the lease commencement date are included in the measurement of lease assets and lease liabilities at the lease commencement date.
The Company has elected the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components. The Company’s non-lease components are primarily related to property maintenance and insurance, which varies based on future outcomes, and thus is recognized in rent expense when incurred.
Net Income (Loss) per Share Available to Common Stockholders
Basic net income (loss) per share available to common stockholders is based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. During periods of income, the Company allocates participating securities a proportional share of net income determined by dividing total weighted average participating securities by the sum of the total weighted average number of common stock and participating securities (the “two-class method”). The Company’s convertible preferred stock participates in any dividends declared by the Company on its common stock and are therefore considered to be participating securities. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, the Company did not declare any dividends.
During periods of loss, the Company allocates no loss to participating securities because they have no contractual obligation to share in the losses of the Company. Diluted net income (loss) per share available to common stockholders is based on the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period, adjusted to include the assumed conversion of preferred stock, and the exercise of certain stock options, RSUs, and warrants for common stock. The calculation of diluted income (loss) per share available to common stockholders requires that, to the extent the average market price of the underlying shares for the reporting period exceeds the exercise price of any outstanding options, RSUs or warrants and the presumed exercise of such securities are dilutive to earnings (loss) per share available to common stockholders for the period. Adjustments to the denominator are required to reflect the related dilutive shares.
Concentration of Risk
Cash and receivables are financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, as well as liquidity risk.
The Company has not experienced any significant credit losses and does not generally require collateral on receivables. For the three months ended September 30, 2019, two partners represented 68% and 28% of total revenues. For the nine months ended September 30, 2019, two partners represented 78% and 14% of total revenues. For the three months ended September 30, 2018, three partners represented 56%, 28% and 14% of total revenues. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018, three partners represented 50%, 21% and 17% of total revenues. As of September 30, 2019, one partner represented 99% of the trade receivables balance. As of December 31, 2018, two partners represented 67% and 28% of the trade receivables balance.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. ASU 2016-13 replaced the incurred loss impairment methodology under current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. ASU 2016-13 requires use of a forward-looking expected credit loss model for accounts receivables, loans, and other financial instruments. Adoption of the standard requires using a modified retrospective approach through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the effective date to align existing credit loss methodology with the new standard. ASU 2016-13 is currently effective for all public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. In October 2019, the FASB affirmed a proposed ASU deferring the effective date of ASU 2016-13 for all entities except public companies that are not smaller reporting companies to fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. This proposed ASU has not been finalized as of the date of this report. When finalized, the Company plans to adopt ASU 2016-13 effective January 1, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements, including accounting policies, processes, and systems.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) (“ASU 2018-13”), which modifies, removes and adds certain disclosure requirements on fair value measurements based on the FASB Concepts Statement, Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting—Chapter 8: Notes to Financial Statements. The ASU is effective for the Company’s interim and annual reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2020, and all annual and interim reporting period thereafter. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. Early adoption is permitted upon issuance of ASU 2018-13. An entity is permitted to early adopt any removed or modified disclosures upon issuance of ASU 2018-13 and delay adoption of the additional disclosures until their effective date. The Company early adopted the guidance related to removal of disclosures upon issuance of this ASU and will delay adoption of additional disclosures as permitted under the ASU. The Company does not believe adoption of the guidance will have a significant impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808) “Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606,” which requires transactions in collaborative arrangements to be accounted for under ASC 606 if the counterparty is a customer for a good or service that is a distinct unit of account. The new standard also precludes an entity from presenting consideration from transactions with a collaborator that is not a customer together with revenue recognized from contracts with customers. The ASU is effective for the Company’s interim and annual reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2020, and all annual and interim reporting period thereafter. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. This ASU requires retrospective adoption to the date the Company adopted ASC 606, January 1, 2018, by recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings of the earliest annual period presented. The Company may elect to apply the ASU retrospectively either to all contracts or only to contracts that are not completed at the date it initially applied ASC 606. The Company is in the process of accessing the impact of ASU 2018-18 on its condensed consolidated financial statements, but does not expect the standard will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef