Fair Value Measurements
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value Measurements||
5. Fair Value Measurements
The Company records its financial assets and liabilities at fair value. The carrying amounts of certain of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash equivalents, trade receivable and accounts payable, approximate their fair value due to their short maturities. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The accounting guidance for fair value establishes a framework for measuring fair value and a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used in valuation techniques. The accounting standard describes a fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, that may be used to measure fair value which are the following:
Level 1 – Observable inputs, such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Observable inputs, either directly or indirectly, other than quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, that are not active or other inputs that are not observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities; therefore, requiring an entity to develop its own valuation techniques and assumptions.
The following tables set forth the Company’s fair value hierarchy for its financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as follows (in thousands):
(1) Included in cash and cash equivalents
During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, there were no transfers between Level 1, Level 2, or Level 3 and the valuation techniques used did not change compared to the Company’s established practice.
The estimated fair value of the contingent warrant liabilities was determined using the Black-Scholes Model, which required inputs such as the expected term of the warrants, volatility and risk-free interest rate. These inputs were subjective and generally required significant analysis and judgment to develop. The Company’s common stock price represented a significant input that affected the valuation of the warrants. The change in the fair value was recorded as a gain or loss in the revaluation of contingent warrant liabilities line of the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). As of December 31, 2017, all the warrants accounted for as liability expired.
The estimated fair value of the contingent warrant liabilities was estimated using the following range of assumptions at December 31, 2016:
The following table provides a summary of changes in the fair value of the Company’s Level 3 financial liabilities for the year ended December 31, 2016 (in thousands):
The fair value of the Company’s outstanding interest-bearing obligations is estimated using the net present value of the payments, discounted at an interest rate that is consistent with market interest rates, which is a Level 2 input. The carrying amount and the estimated fair value of the Company’s outstanding interest-bearing obligations at December 31, 2017 and 2016 are as follows (in thousands):
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef