Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions among consolidated entities were eliminated upon consolidation.

Liquidity and Financial Condition

With the exception of the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company has incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $45.8 million. Based on the Company’s current cash and cash equivalents balance and its ability to control discretionary spending, such as royalty acquisitions, the Company has evaluated and concluded there are no conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern for a period of one year following the date that these financial statements are issued.


Certain immaterial prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates including, but not limited to, those related to revenue recognition, long-term equity securities, debt amendments, long-lived assets, restructuring liabilities, legal contingencies, income taxes and stock-based compensation. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other market-specific and other relevant assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.

Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates, such as the Company’s billing under government contracts and amortization of the payments received from HealthCare Royalty Partners II, L.P. (“HCRP”). Under the Company’s contracts with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (“NIAID”), a part of the National Institutes of Health (“NIH”), the Company billed using NIH’s provisional rates and thus is subject to future audits at the discretion of NIAID’s contracting office. These audits can result in an adjustment to revenue previously reported which potentially could be material. In addition, under the contracts with HCRP, the amortization for the reporting period is calculated based on the payments expected to be made by the licensees to HCRP over the term of the arrangement. Any changes to the estimated payments by the licensees to HCRP can result in a material adjustment to revenue previously reported.

Revenue Recognition

Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606") using the modified retrospective transition method and applied the standard only to contracts that were still active or in place at that date. Also, as permitted, the Company applied the practical expedient under ASC 606 which permits the Company to treat all contract modifications that occurred prior to the adoption in aggregate when determining the performance obligations, transaction price and its allocation. Except for the Company’s license agreement with Rezolute, Inc. (formerly AntriaBio, Inc.) (“Rezolute”), the Company did not have any other contracts with customers for which the Company had not completed its performance obligations as of the adoption date January 1, 2018. The license agreement with Rezolute was not considered a contract under ASC 606 as it was not probable that the Company would collect substantially all of the consideration to which it will be entitled in exchange for the goods or services that were transferred to Rezolute and there was no consideration exchanged upon execution of the arrangement or as of January 1, 2018 (see Note 4). Thus, the Company determined that the adoption of ASC 606 did not have a financial impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements. In addition, the adoption of ASC 606 has no material impact for tax purposes. This standard applies to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, collaboration arrangements and financial instruments.  Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services.

To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that the Company determines are within the scope of ASC 606, the Company performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation.  The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that Company will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer.  At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations, and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct.  The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation based on relative fair values, when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.

The Company recognizes revenue from its license and collaboration arrangements and royalties. The terms of the arrangements generally include payment to the Company of one or more of the following: non-refundable, upfront license fees, development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments, and royalties on net sales of licensed products.

License of intellectual property

If the license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenue from non-refundable, upfront fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the customer and the customer is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, such as transfer of related materials, process and know-how, the Company utilizes judgement to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time. Under the Company’s license agreements, the nature of the combined performance obligation is the granting of licenses to the customers as the other promises are not separately identifiable in the context of the arrangement. Since the Company grants the license to a customer as it exists at the point of transfer, and is not involved in any future development or commercialization of the products related to the license, the nature of the license is a right to use the Company’s intellectual property as transferred. As such, the Company recognizes revenue related to the combined performance obligation upon completion of the delivery of the related materials, process and know-how (i.e., at a point in time).

Milestone payments

At the inception of each arrangement that includes development and regulatory milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price. ASC 606 suggests two alternatives to use when estimating the amount of variable consideration: the expected value method and the most likely amount method. Under the expected value method, an entity considers the sum of probability-weighted amounts in a range of possible consideration amounts. Under the most likely amount method, an entity considers the single most likely amount in a range of possible consideration amounts. The Company expects to use the most likely amount method for development and regulatory milestone payments. If it is probable that a significant cumulative revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis. The Company recognizes revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the probability or achievement of each such milestone and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjusts its estimates of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect revenue and earnings in the period of adjustment.


For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).

Upfront payments and fees are recorded as deferred revenue upon receipt or when due, and may require deferral of revenue recognition to a future period until the Company performs its obligations under these arrangements. Amounts payable to the Company are recorded as accounts receivable when the Company’s right to consideration is unconditional. The Company does not assess whether a contract has a significant financing component if the expectation at contract inception is such that the period between payment by the customer and the transfer of the promised goods or services to the customer will be one year or less.

Sale of Future Revenue Streams

The Company has sold its rights to receive certain milestones and royalties on product sales. In the circumstance where the Company has sold its rights to future milestones and royalties under a license agreement and also maintains limited continuing involvement in the arrangement (but not significant continuing involvement in the generation of the cash flows that are due to the purchaser), the Company defers recognition of the proceeds it receives for the sale of milestone or royalty streams and recognizes such unearned revenue as revenue under units-of-revenue method over the life of the underlying license agreement. Under the units-of-revenue method, amortization for a reporting period is calculated by computing a ratio of the proceeds received from the purchaser to the total payments expected to be made to the purchaser over the term of the agreement, and then applying that ratio to the period’s cash payment.

Estimating the total payments expected to be received by the purchaser over the term of such arrangements requires management to use subjective estimates and assumptions. Changes to the Company’s estimate of the payments expected to be made to the purchaser over the term of such arrangements could have a material effect on the amount of revenues recognized in any particular period.

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company recognizes compensation expense for all stock-based payment awards made to the Company’s employees, consultants and directors that are expected to vest based on estimated fair values. The valuation of stock option awards is determined at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model (the “Black-Scholes Model”). The Black-Scholes Model requires inputs such as the expected term of the option, expected volatility and risk-free interest rate. To establish an estimate of expected term, the Company considers the vesting period and contractual period of the award and its historical experience of stock option exercises, post-vesting cancellations and volatility. The estimate of expected volatility is based on the Company’s historical volatility. The risk-free rate is based on the yield available on United States Treasury zero-coupon issues corresponding to the expected term of the award. The Company records forfeitures when they occur.

The Company records compensation expense for service-based awards over the vesting period of the award on a straight-line basis. For awards with performance-based conditions, at the point that it becomes probable that the performance conditions will be met, the Company records a cumulative catch-up of the expense from the grant date to the current date, and then amortizes the remainder of the expense over the remaining service period. Management evaluates when the achievement of a performance-based condition is probable based on the expected satisfaction of the performance conditions as of the reporting date. The amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest.

The valuation of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) is determined at the date of grant using the Company’s closing stock price.

Restructuring and Impairment Charges

Restructuring costs are primarily comprised of severance costs related to workforce reductions, contract termination costs, lease-related liability and asset impairments. The Company recognizes restructuring charges when the liability has been incurred, except for employee termination benefits that are incurred over time. Generally, employee termination benefits (i.e., severance costs) are accrued at the date management has committed to a plan of termination and employees have been notified of their termination dates and expected severance payments. Key assumptions in determining the restructuring costs include the terms and payments that may be negotiated to terminate certain contractual obligations and the timing of employees leaving the Company. Other costs, including contract termination costs, are recorded when the arrangement is terminated. Asset impairment charges have been, and will be, recognized when management has concluded that the assets have been impaired.

For lease-related liability, the Company recognizes the present value of facility lease-related obligations, net of estimated sublease income and other costs, when the Company has future payments with no future economic benefit. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recorded accretion expense to increase the liability to an amount equal to the estimated future cash payments necessary to exit the leases. This requires judgment and management estimation to determine the expected time frame for securing a subtenant, the amount of sublease income to be received and the appropriate discount rate to calculate the present value of the future cash flows. Should actual lease costs differ from estimates, the Company may be required to adjust the restructuring charge which will impact operating expenses in the period any adjustment is recorded.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid debt instruments with maturities of three months or less at the time the Company acquires them and that can be liquidated without prior notice or penalty to be cash equivalents.

Equity Securities

Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The amendment requires equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method, those that result in consolidation of the investee and certain other investments) to be measured at fair value with any changes in fair value recognized in net (loss) income. For equity investments that do not have readily determinable fair values and do not qualify for the existing practical expedient in ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements, to estimate fair value using the net asset value per share of the investment, the Company may choose to measure those investments at cost, less any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer. In February 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) also issued ASU 2018-03, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (ASU 2018-03), which made improvements to address certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. ASU 2018-03 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods beginning after June 15, 2018, but may be adopted concurrently with ASU 2016-01.  As permitted, the Company adopted ASU 2016-01 and ASU 2018-03 concurrently on January 1, 2018. The adoption had no impact on the consolidated financial statements as the Company did not have any equity investments that existed as of the adoption date.

Subsequent to the adoption date, the Company received shares of common stock from Rezolute (Note 4). Equity investments in Rezolute are classified in the consolidated balance sheets as long-term equity securities. The equity securities are measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recorded in other income (expense), net line item of the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive (loss) income at each reporting period. The Company remeasures its equity investments at each reporting period until such time that the investment is sold or disposed of. If the Company sells an investment, any realized gains and losses on the sale of the securities will be recognized in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive (loss) income in the period of sale.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment is stated at cost less depreciation. Equipment depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets (three years). Leasehold improvements were depreciated using the straight-line method over the shorter of the lease terms or the useful lives. Amortization expense for assets acquired through capital leases was included in depreciation expense in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income. Upon the sale, retirement or disposal of assets, the cost and related accumulated depreciation and amortization are removed from the consolidated balance sheets, and the resulting gain or loss, if any, is reflected in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income. Repairs and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred.

The carrying value of the property and equipment is reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition is less than its carrying amount. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recognized no impairment charges. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company recognized impairment charges of $0.2 million recorded in other income, net line in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.

Purchase of Rights to Future Milestones and Royalties

The Company has purchased rights to receive a portion of certain future developmental, regulatory and commercial sales milestones, and royalties on sales of products currently in clinical development. The Company acquired such rights from Agenus, Inc., and certain affiliates (collectively, “Agenus”), in September 2018 and recorded the amount paid for these rights as long-term royalty receivables (refer to Note 5). The Company has accounted for the purchased rights as a financial asset in accordance with ASC 310, Receivables.

The Company accounts for milestone and royalty rights related to developmental pipeline products on a non-accrual basis using the cost recovery method. These developmental pipeline products are non-commercialized, non-approved products that require Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or other regulatory approval, and thus have uncertain cash flows. The Company is not yet able to reliably forecast future cash flows given their pre-commercial stages of development. The related receivable balance is classified as noncurrent since no payments are probable to be received in the near term. Under the cost recovery method, any milestone or royalty received is recorded as a direct reduction of the recorded receivable balance. When the recorded receivable balance has been fully collected, any additional amounts collected are recognized as revenue.

The Company reviews any impairment indicators and changes in expected recoverability of the long-term royalty receivable asset regularly. If expected future cash flows discounted to the current period are less than the carrying value of the asset, the Company will record impairment. The impairment will be recognized by reducing the financial asset to an amount that represents the present value of the most recent estimate of cash flows. No impairment was recorded as of December 31, 2018.


The Company has issued warrants to purchase shares of its common stock in connection with financing activities. The Company classifies these warrants as equity and are recorded at fair value as of the date of issuance on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet and no further adjustments to their valuation are made. The fair value of the outstanding warrants was estimated using the Black-Scholes Model. The Black-Scholes Model required inputs such as the expected term of the warrants, expected volatility and risk-free interest rate. These inputs were subjective and required significant analysis and judgment to develop. For the estimate of the expected term, the Company used the full remaining contractual term of the warrant. The Company determined the expected volatility assumption in the Black-Scholes Model based on historical stock price volatility observed on the Company’s underlying stock.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes using the liability method under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount which is more likely than not to be realizable.

The recognition, derecognition and measurement of a tax position is based on management’s best judgment given the facts, circumstances and information available at each reporting date. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to the underpayment of income taxes as a component of income tax expense. To date, there have been no interest or penalties charged in relation to the unrecognized tax benefits.

Net (Loss) Income per Share Available to Common Stockholders

Basic net (loss) income per share available to common stockholders is based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Net (loss) income available to common stockholders consists of net (loss) income, as adjusted for any convertible preferred stock deemed dividends related to beneficial conversion features on this instrument at issuance. During periods of income, the Company allocates participating securities a proportional share of net income, after deduction of any deemed dividends on preferred stock, determined by dividing total weighted average participating securities by the sum of the total weighted average number of common stock and participating securities (the “two-class method”). The Company’s convertible preferred stock participates in any dividends declared by the Company on its common stock and are therefore considered to be participating securities. For the year ended December 31, 2017, the convertible preferred stock had a deemed dividend which represented the accretion of a beneficial conversion feature. As such, the net income for the year ended December 31, 2017 was adjusted for the convertible preferred stock deemed dividend related to the beneficial conversion feature on these shares at issuance.

During periods of loss, the Company allocates no loss to participating securities because they have no contractual obligation to share in the losses of the Company. Diluted net (loss) income per share available to common stockholders is based on the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period, adjusted to include the assumed conversion of preferred stock, and the exercise of certain stock options, RSUs, and warrants for common stock. The calculation of diluted (loss) income per share available to common stockholders requires that, to the extent the average market price of the underlying shares for the reporting period exceeds the exercise price of any outstanding options, RSUs or warrants and the presumed exercise of such securities are dilutive to earnings (loss) per share available to common stockholders for the period. Adjustments to the denominator are required to reflect the related dilutive shares.

Comprehensive (Loss) Income

Comprehensive (loss) income is comprised of two components: net (loss) income and other comprehensive (loss) income. Other comprehensive (loss) income refers to gains and losses that under U.S. GAAP are recorded as an element of stockholders’ equity but are excluded from net (loss) income. The Company did not record any transactions within other comprehensive (loss) income in the periods presented and, therefore, the net (loss) income and comprehensive (loss) income were the same for all periods presented. 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 is aimed at making leasing activities more transparent and comparable and requires substantially all leases be recognized by lessees on their balance sheet as a right-of-use asset and corresponding lease liability, including leases currently accounted for as operating leases. Early adoption is permitted and must be adopted using a modified retrospective approach. In July 2018, however, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which provides entities with an additional (and optional) transition method which would enable entities to initially apply the new leases standard at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings/accumulated deficit. This optional transition method is in addition to the modified retrospective transition approach included in ASU 2016-02. The new standard will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2019 and will be adopted using the optional transition method by recognizing a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as of that date. The effect of adoption on the Company’s financial statements will depend on the leases in effect and the Company’s borrowing rates at that time. The Company will recognize a material right-of-use asset and corresponding lease liability on the balance sheet upon adoption for its existing leases but does not expect the adoption to significantly impact its consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive (loss) income.

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation- Stock Compensation (Topic 718) “Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting,” which expands the scope of Topic 718 to include all share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. An entity should apply the requirements of Topic 718 to nonemployee awards except for certain exemptions specified in the amendment. ASU 2018-07 is effective for the Company’s interim and annual reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2019, and all annual and interim reporting periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. The Company elected to early adopt this standard on June 30, 2018. The adoption did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820), which modifies, removes and adds certain disclosure requirements on fair value measurements based on the FASB Concepts Statement, Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting—Chapter 8: Notes to Financial Statements. The ASU is effective for the Company’s interim and annual reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2020, and all annual and interim reporting period thereafter. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. Early adoption is permitted upon issuance of ASU 2018-13. An entity is permitted to early adopt any removed or modified disclosures upon issuance of ASU 2018-13 and delay adoption of the additional disclosures until their effective date. The Company early adopted the guidance related to removal of disclosures upon issuance of this ASU and will delay adoption of additional disclosures as permitted under the ASU. The Company does not believe adoption of the guidance will have a significant impact on its consolidated financial statements.

In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808) “Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606,” which requires transactions in collaborative arrangements to be accounted for under ASC 606 if the counterparty is a customer for a good or service that is a distinct unit of account. The new standard also precludes an entity from presenting consideration from transactions with a collaborator that is not a customer together with revenue recognized from contracts with customers. The ASU is effective for the Company’s interim and annual reporting periods during the year ending December 31, 2020, and all annual and interim reporting period thereafter. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. This ASU requires retrospective adoption to the date the Company adopted ASC 606, January 1, 2018, by recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings of the earliest annual period presented. The Company may elect to apply the ASU retrospectively either to all contracts or only to contracts that are not completed at the date it initially applied ASC 606. The Company is in the process of accessing the impact of ASU 2018-18 on its consolidated financial statements.