Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2013
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosures. On an on-going basis, management evaluates its estimates including, but not limited to, those related to contingent warrant liabilities, revenue recognition, research and development expense, long-lived assets, derivative instruments and stock-based compensation. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other market-specific and other relevant assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates, such as the Company’s billing under government contracts. Under the Company’s contracts with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (“NIAID”), a part of the National Institutes of Health (“NIH”), the Company bills using NIH provisional rates and thus are subject to future audits at the discretion of NIAID’s contracting office. These audits can result in an adjustment to revenue previously reported.


Certain reclassifications of prior period amounts have been made to the financial statements and accompanying notes to conform to the current period presentation. Prior period presentations of net product sales and royalty revenue have been reclassified into contract and other revenue because the net product sales and royalty revenue were not material for all periods presented. These reclassifications had no impact on the Company’s previously reported net loss or cash flows.

Newly Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2013, Accounting Standards Codification Topic 220, Comprehensive Income was amended to require companies to report, in one place, information about reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income. Accordingly, a company can present this information on the face of the financial statements, if certain requirements are met, or the information must be presented in the notes to the financial statements. The Company adopted this guidance as of January 1, 2013, on a retrospective basis and the items reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income are not material for all periods presented.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized when the four basic criteria of revenue recognition are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; (3) the fee is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. The determination of criteria (2) is based on management’s judgments regarding whether a continuing performance obligation exists. The determination of criteria (3) and (4) are based on management’s judgments regarding the nature of the fee charged for products or services delivered and the collectability of those fees. Allowances are established for estimated uncollectible amounts, if any.
The Company recognizes revenue from its license and collaboration arrangements, contract services, product sales and royalties. Revenue arrangements with multiple elements are divided into separate units of accounting if certain criteria are met, including whether the delivered element has stand-alone value to the customer and whether there is objective and reliable evidence of the fair value of the undelivered items. The consideration received is allocated among the separate units based on their respective fair values and the applicable revenue recognition criteria are applied to each of the separate units. Advance payments received in excess of amounts earned are classified as deferred revenue until earned.

License and Collaborative Fees

Revenue from non-refundable license, technology access or other payments under license and collaborative agreements where the Company has a continuing obligation to perform is recognized as revenue over the expected period of the continuing performance obligation. The Company estimates the performance period at the inception of the arrangement and reevaluates it each reporting period. This reevaluation may shorten or lengthen the period over which the remaining revenue is recognized. Changes to these estimates are recorded on a prospective basis.

Milestone payments under collaborative and other arrangements are recognized as revenue upon completion of the milestone event, once confirmation is received from the third party and collectability is reasonably assured. This represents the culmination of the earnings process when the Company has no future performance obligations related to the payment. Milestone payments that are not substantive or that require a continuing performance obligation on the part of the Company are recognized over the expected period of the continuing performance obligation. Amounts received in advance are recorded as deferred revenue until the related milestone is completed.

Contract Revenue

Contract revenue for research and development involves the Company providing research and development and manufacturing services to collaborative partners, biodefense contractors or others. Revenue for certain contracts is accounted for by a proportional performance, or output-based, method where performance is based on estimated progress toward elements defined in the contract. The amount of contract revenue and related costs recognized in each accounting period are based on management’s estimates of the proportional performance during the period. Adjustments to estimates based on actual performance are recognized on a prospective basis and do not result in reversal of revenue should the estimate to complete be extended.

Up-front fees are recognized in the same manner as the final deliverable, which is generally ratably over the period of the continuing performance obligation. Given the uncertainties of research and development collaborations, significant judgment is required to determine the duration of the arrangement.

Net Product Sales

Revenue from net product sales are recorded in the periods these product sales are earned, in advance of collection. The product sale revenue and receivables in these instances is based upon communication with the distribution customers. Product sales are recorded net of allowances and accruals for prompt pay discounts, volume rebates, and product returns.

Royalty Revenue

Royalty revenue and royalty receivables are recorded in the periods these royalties are earned, in advance of collection. The royalty revenue and receivables in these instances is based upon communication with collaborative partners or licensees, historical information and forecasted sales trends.

Research and Development Expenses

The Company expenses research and development costs as incurred. Research and development expenses consist of direct costs such as salaries and related personnel costs, and material and supply costs, and research-related allocated overhead costs, such as facilities costs. In addition, research and development expenses include costs related to clinical trials. Expenses resulting from clinical trials are recorded when incurred based, in part on estimates as to the status of the various trials. From time to time, research and development expenses may include up-front fees and milestones paid to collaborative partners for the purchase of rights to in-process research and development. Such amounts are expensed as incurred.

Cash and Cash Equivalents and Short-term Investments

The Company considers all highly liquid debt instruments with maturities of three months or less at the time the Company acquires them to be cash equivalents.

Short-term investments include debt securities classified as available-for-sale. Available-for-sale securities are stated at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, if any, reported in other comprehensive income (loss). The estimate of fair value is based on publicly available market information. Realized gains and losses and declines in value judged to be other-than-temporary on available-for-sale securities are also included in investment and other income. The Company reviews its instruments for other-than-temporary impairment whenever the value of the instrument is less than the amortized cost. The cost of investments sold is based on the specific identification method. Interest and dividends on securities classified as available-for-sale are included in investment and other income.

Property and Equipment and Long-Lived Assets

Property and equipment is stated at cost less depreciation. Equipment depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets (three to seven years). Leasehold improvements, buildings and building improvements are depreciated using the straight-line method over the shorter of the lease terms or the useful lives (one to fifteen years).

The Company reviews the carrying values and depreciation lives of its long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when the estimated future net cash flows expected to result from the use of an asset is less than its carrying amount. Long-lived assets include property and equipment and building and leasehold improvements. During 2012, the Company recorded accelerated depreciation of $1.3 million and an impairment loss of $0.8 million on long-lived assets in connection with the Company’s 2012 streamlining plan. See Note 5: Streamlining and Restructuring Charges for additional disclosure on the 2012 streamlining plan.


The Company has issued warrants to purchase shares of its common stock in connection with financing activities. The Company accounts for some of these warrants as a liability at fair value and others as equity at fair value. The fair value of the outstanding warrants is estimated using the Black-Scholes Model. The Black-Scholes Model requires inputs such as the expected term of the warrants, expected volatility and risk-free interest rate. These inputs are subjective and require significant analysis and judgment to develop. For the estimate of the expected term, the Company uses the full remaining contractual term of the warrant. In 2013, the Company changed its expected volatility assumption in the Black-Scholes Model from a volatility implied from warrants issued by XOMA in recent private placement transactions to a volatility based on historical stock price volatility observed on XOMA’s underlying stock. A historical stock price volatility rate was determined to be a more precise indicator for the fair value calculation of the Company’s warrants due to time elapsed since these warrants were granted. The assumptions associated with contingent warrant liabilities are reviewed each reporting period and changes in the estimated fair value of these contingent warrant liabilities are recognized in other income (expense).

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification Topic 740, Income Taxes ("ASC 740"). The application of income tax law and regulations are inherently complex.

ASC 740 provides for the recognition of deferred tax assets if realization of such assets is more likely than not.  Based upon the weight of available evidence, which includes the Company’s historical operating performance and carry-back potential, the Company has determined that total deferred tax assets should be fully offset by a valuation allowance.

Net Loss per Share of Common Stock

Basic net loss per share of common stock is based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share of common stock is based on the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period, adjusted to include the assumed conversion of certain stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and warrants for common stock.

Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the calculation of loss per share if their inclusion is anti-dilutive. The following table shows the total outstanding securities considered anti-dilutive and therefore excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share (in thousands):

December 31,
Options for common stock
    7,087       5,603       3,890  
Convertible preferred stock
    -       -       67  
Warrants for common stock
    15,839       13,840       1,609  
    22,926       19,443       5,566  

For the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011, all outstanding common stock equivalents were considered anti-dilutive and therefore the calculations of basic and diluted net loss per share are the same.